Key References of the WSM Project

Heidbach, O., M. Rajabi, K. Reiter, M. Ziegler, and the WSM Team (2016). World Stress Map Database Release 2016, GFZ Data Services,

Heidbach, O., M. Rajabi, K. Reiter, and M. Ziegler (2016). World Stress Map 2016, GFZ Data Services,

Heidbach, O., M. Tingay, A. Barth, J. Reinecker, D. Kurfeß, and B. Müller (2010). Global crustal stress pattern based on the World Stress Map database release 2008, Tectonophys., 482, 3-15,  (PDF)

Heidbach, O., J. Reinecker, M. Tingay, B. Müller, B. Sperner, K. Fuchs, and F. Wenzel (2007). Plate boundary forces are not enough: Second- and third-order stress patterns highlighted in the World Stress Map database, Tectonics, 26, (PDF)

Sperner, B., B. Müller, O. Heidbach, D. Delvaux, J. Reinecker, and K. Fuchs (2003). Tectonic stress in the Earth's crust: advances in the World Stress Map project, in New insights in structural interpretation and modelling, edited by D. A. Nieuwland, Special Publication 212, 101-116, Geol. Soc. Spec. Pub., London,  (PDF)

Zoback, M. L., and M. Zoback (1980). State of Stress in the Conterminous United States, J. Geophys. Res., 85(B11), 6113-6156,

Zoback, M. L., Zoback, M., Adams, J., Assumpção, M., Bell, S., Bergman, E. A., Blümling, P., Brereton, N. R., Denham, D., Ding, J., Fuchs, K., Gay, N., Gregersen, S., Gupta, H. K., Gvishiani, A., Jacob, K., Klein, R., Knoll, P., Magee, M., Mercier, J. L., Müller, B. C., Paquin, C., Rajendran, K., Stephansson, O., Suarez, G., Suter, M., Udías, A., Xu, Z. H., and Zhizhin, M., (1989). Global patterns of tectonic stress, Nature, 341, 291-298,

Zoback, M., and M. L. Zoback (1991). Tectonic stress field of North America and relative plate motions, in Neotectonics of North America, edited by D. B. Slemmons, E. R. Engdahl, M. D. Zoback and D. D. Blackwell, pp. 339-366, Geological Society of America, Boulder, Coloardo.  (PDF)

Zoback, M. L. (1992). First and second order patterns of stress in the lithosphere: The World Stress Map Project, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 11703-11728,

Further References

Altmann, J. B., B. Müller, T. Müller, O. Heidbach, M. Tingay, and A. Weißhardt (2014), Pore pressure stress coupling in 3D and consequences for reservoir stress states and fault reactivation, Geothermics, 52, 195-205, (PDF)

Altmann, J. B., T. M. Müller, B. I. R. Müller, M. R. P. Tingay, and O. Heidbach (2010), Poroelastic contribution to the reservoir stress path, Int. J. Rock. Mech. & Min. Sci., 47, 1104-1113, (PDF)

Barton, C. A., and M. D. Zoback (2000), Discrimination of Nature Fractures from Drilling-Induced Wellbore ailures in Wellbore Image Data- Implications for Reservoir Permeability, Soc. of Petroleum Eng., 1-8.

Bell, J. S. (1996), In situ stresses in sedimentary rocks (Part 1): measurement techniques, Geoscience Canada, 23, 85-100.

Bell, J. S. (1996), In situ stresses in sedimentary rocks (Part 2): applications of stress measurements, Geoscience Canada, 23, 135-153.

Brudy, M., M. D. Zoback, K. Fuchs, F. Rummel, and J. Baumgärtner (1997), Estimation of the complete stress tensor to 8 km depth in the KTB scientific drill holes: Implications for the crustal strength, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 18453-18475.

Célérier, B. (2010), Remarks on the relationship between the tectonic regime, the rake of the slip vectors, the dip of the nodal planes, and the plunges of the P, B, and T axes of earthquake focal mechanisms, Tectonophys., 482,

Célérier, B., A. Etchecopar, F. Bergerat, P. Vergely, F. Arthaud, and P. Laurent (2012), Inferring stress from faulting: From early concepts to inverse methods Tectonophys., 1206-1219,

Cornet, F. H., and T. Röckel (2012). Vertical stress profiles and the significance of "stress decoupling", Tectonophys., 1193-1205,

Engelder, T. (1992), Stress Regimes in the Lithosphere, 457 pp., Princeton, NJ.

Engelder, T. (1994). Deviatoric Stressitis: A Virus Infecting the Earth Science Community, EOS Trans., 75, 209, 211-212,

Fischer, K., and A. Henk (2013) A workflow for building and calibrating 3-D geomechanical models - a case study for a gas reservoir in the North German Basin, Solid Earth, 5357-5355,

Fuchs, K., and B. Müller (2001), World Stress Map of the Earth: a key to tectonic processes and technological applications, Naturwissenschaften, 88, 357-371.

Grünthal, G., and D. Stromeyer (1992), The recent Crustal Stress Field in Central Europe: Trajectories and Finite Element Modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 11805-11820.

Haimson, B. C., and F. H. Cornet (2003), ISRM suggested methods for rock stress estimation - Part 3: hydraulic fracturing (HF) and/or hydraulic testing of pre-existing fractures (HTPF), Int. J. Rock. Mech., 40, 1011-1020.

Hardebeck, J. L., and A. Michael (2004), Stress orientations at intermediate angels to the San Andreas Fault, California, J. Geophys. Res., 109,

Heidbach, O., and J. Höhne (2008), CASMI - a tool for the visualization of the World Stress Map data base, Comp. & Geosciences, 34, 783-791, (PDF)

Hergert, T., and O. Heidbach (2011), Geomechanical model of the Marmara Sea region - II. 3-D contemporary background stress field, Geophys. J. Int., 3, 1090-1102,  (PDF)

Hergert, T., O. Heidbach, K. Reiter, S. Giger, and P. Marschall (2015), Stress field sensitivity analysis in a sedimentary sequence of the Alpine foreland, northern Switzerland, Solid Earth, 6, 533-552, (PDF)

Hickman, S., and M. Zoback (2004), Stress orientations and magnitudes in the SAFOD pilot hole, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31,

Jaeger, J. C., N. G. W. Cook, and R. W. Zimmermann (2007), Fundamentals of Rock Mechanics, 4th ed., Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.

Ljunggren, C., Chang, Y., Janson, T., and Christiansson, R., (2003), An overview of rock stress measurement methods, Int. J. Rock. Mech., 40, 975-989.

Lund, B., and M. D. Zoback (1999), Orientation and magnitude of in situ stress to 6.5 km depth in the Baltic Shield, Int. J. Rock. Mech. & Min. Sci., 36, 169-190.

McGarr, A. (1988), On the state of lithospheric stress in the absence of apllied tectonic forces, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 13,609-13, 617.

McKenzie, D. (1969), The relation between fault plane solutions for earthquakes and the directions of the principal stresses, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 59(2), 591-601.

Montone, P., and M. T. Mariucci (2016). The new release of the Italian contemporary stress map, Geophys. J. Int., 205, 1525-15331,

Müller, B., M. L. Zoback, K. Fuchs, L. Mastin, S. Gregersen, N. Pavoni, O. Stephansson, and C. Ljunggren (1992). Regional Patterns of Tectonic Stress in Europe, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 11783-11803,

Plumb, R. A., and S. Hickman (1985). Stress-induced borehole enlargement: a comparison between the four-arm dipmeter and the borehole televiewer in the Auburn geothermal well, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 5513-5521.

Provost, A.-S., and Houston, H., (2003). Stress orientations in northern and central California: Evidence of the evolution of frictional strength along the San Andreas plate boundary system, J. Geophys. Res., 108,

Rajabi, M., M. Tingay, and O. Heidbach (2016). The present-day state of stress in the Darling Basin, Australia: Implications for exploration and production, Marine and Petr. Geol., 776-790,

Rajabi, M., M. Tingay, and O. Heidbach (2016). The present-day stress field of New South Wales, Australia, Australian J.  Earth Sci., 63, doi:10.1080/08120099.2016.1135821

Rajabi, M., M. Tingay, R. King, and O. Heidbach (2016). Present-day stress orientation in the Clarence-Moreton Basin of New South Wales, Australia: A new high density dataset reveals local stress rotations, Basin Res., 1-19, doi:10.1111/bre.12175

Rajabi, M., M. Ziegler, M. Tingay, O. Heidbach, and S. Reynolds (2016). Contemporary tectonic stress pattern of the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, J. Geophys. Res., 121, 6053-6070,

Reiter, K., and O. Heidbach (2014), 3-D geomechanical-numerical model of the contemporary crustal stress state in the Alberta Basin (Canada), Solid Earth, 5, 1123-1149,  (PDF)

Reiter, K., O. Heidbach, D. Schmitt, I. Moeck, M. Ziegler, and C. Hauck (2014). Crustal stress field pattern of Canada, Tectonophys., 636, 1111-1124,

Richardson, R. M. (1992). Ridge Forces, Absolute Plate Motions, and the Intraplate Stress Field, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 11739-11748.

Schmitt, D. R., C. A. Currie, and L. Zhang (2012). Crustal stress determination from boreholes and rock cores: Fundamental principles,Tectonophys., 1011-1026, h

Tingay, M., O. Heidbach, R. Davies, and R. Swarbrick (2008). Triggering of the Lusi mud eruption: Earthquake versus drilling initiation, Geology, 36,

Tingay, M., R. R. Hillis, C. K. Morley , E. Swarbrick, and S. J. Drake (2005). Present-day stress orientation in Brunei: a snapshot of 'prograding tectonic' in a Tertiary delta, J. Geol. Soc., London, 162, 39-49.

Tingay, M., B. Müller, J. Reinecker, O. Heidbach, F. Wenzel, and P. Fleckenstein (2005). Understanding tectonic stress in the oil patch: The World Stress Map Project, The Leading Edge, 1276-1282.

Townend, J., and M. D. Zoback (2000), How faulting keeps the crust strong, Geology, 28, 399-402.

Valley, B., and K. F. Evans (2009). Stress orientation to 5 km depth in the basement below Basel (Switzerland) from borehole failure analysis, Swiss J. Geosci., 102,

Zang, A., O. Stephansson, O. Heidbach, and S. Janouschkowetz (2012). World Stress Map Database as a Resource of Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, Geotech. Geol. Eng., (PDF)

Ziegler, M., O. Heidbach, J. Reinecker, A. M. Przybycin, and M. Scheck-Wenderoth (2016). A multi-stage 3-D stress field modelling approach exemplified in the Bavarian Molasse Basin, Solid Earth, 7, 1365-1382, (PDF)

Ziegler, M., R. Mojtaba, O. Heidbach, G. P. Hersir, K. Ágústsson, S. Árnadóttir, and A. Zang (2016). The stress pattern of Iceland, Tectonophys., 674, 101-113,

Zoback, M., C. A. Barton, M. Brudy, D. A. Castillo, T. Finkbeiner, B. R. Grollimund, D. B. Moos, P. Peska, C. D. Ward, and D. J. Wiprut (2003). Determintation of stress orientation and magnitude in deep wells, Int. J. Rock. Mech., 40, 1049-1076.

Zoback, M., D. Moos, and L. Mastin (1985). Well Bore Breakouts and in Situ Stress, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 5523-5530.

Zoback, M. L., and M. Zoback (1989). Tectonic stress field of the conterminous United States, in Geophysical Framework of the Continental United States, edited by L. C. Pakiser and W. D. Mooney, pp. 523-539, Geol. Soc. Am. Mem., Boulder, Colorado.

New publications of the WSM team members

  • Rajabi, M., M. Tingay, O. Heidbach, R. Hillis, and S. Reynolds (2017): The present-day stress field of Australia. Earth Sc. Rev., 168,165-189 link
  • Ziegler, M., O. Heidbach, A. Zang, P. Martínez-Garzón, and M. Bohnhoff (2017): Estimation of the differential stress from the stress rotation angle in low permeable rock. Geophys. Res. Lett.  link
  • Snee Lund, J.-E., and Zoback, M., (2016): State of stress in Texas: Implications for induced seismicity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 10208-10214 link
  • Rajabi, M., M. Ziegler, M. Tingay, O. Heidbach, and S. Reynolds (2016): Contemporary tectonic stress pattern of the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, J. Geophys. Res., 121, 6053-6070 link
  • Ziegler, M., O. Heidbach, J. Reinecker, A. M. Przybycin, and M. Scheck-Wenderoth (2016): A multi-stage 3-D stress field modelling approach exemplified in the Bavarian Molasse Basin, Solid Earth, 7, 1365-1382 link